Kaddish

Kaddish

Aspect historique

Bien qu’il soit difficile de dater la naissance d’une prière, la formulation simple en langue araméenne (kaddish signifie « saint »), l’absence d’une demande de reconstruction du Temple ou du retour des exilés suggère que le Kaddish fut rédigé en Babylonie, à l’époque du second Temple, alors que la Judée se trouvait sous domination romaine. La similitude avec le « notre Père » chrétien qui exprime cette attente messianique si forte à l’époque, confirme cette datation.

Selon le Talmud, le Kaddish fut d’abord établi pour clore une étude ou une homélie aggadique, louer l’Éternel et bénir les Maîtres, il arrivait même, que l’on mentionnât nominativement un sage particulier tel le chef religieux de la diaspora (rech galouta). Dans la liturgie yéménite on a retrouvé le nom de sages vénérables comme Maïmonide.

La première mention du Kaddish en tant que partie de l’office, se trouve dans le traité Sofrim (Scribes) (IIIe siècle). À l’époque des Guéonim (VIIe siècle), le Kaddish était déjà codifié puisqu’il exigeait qu’il soit récité debout, en  présence d’un minyan, ou quorum de dix hommes majeurs religieusement.

Le Kaddish dans la prière
   
Depuis cette date, le Kaddish marque les différentes étapes de la prière, les mystiques parlant des différents niveaux de dévotions liés aux sphères supérieures. Dès lors, le Kaddish devient une sorte de station où tous les fidèles se rassemblent, lorsque attentifs aux mots du ministre officiant, ils répondent à l’unisson “Amen”. Cette idée mérite notre attention, car l’une des particularités de la prière juive est justement de traduire un équilibre entre la ferveur du particulier et la foi de la communauté.

Ce Kaddish occupe une telle place que le Talmud affirmera que quiconque répond “Amen” de toute la force de sa conviction verra ses fautes effacées, car le fidèle exprime clairement son acceptation de la royauté divine.

Construit à partir de versets tirés des Hagiographes (Psaumes, Job, Daniel), le Kaddish possédait à l’origine diverses formulations, jusqu’à ce que celle du séder rav Amram (ouvrage liturgique composé par ce rabbin babylonien) soit adoptée (IXe siècle).

Parmi les différences majeures entre les rites ashkénaze et séfarade, citons l’occultation dans le premier cas de la formule “que ton Messie approche”, qui fut le résultat de la censure chrétienne, qui affirmait bien sûr que le Messie était déjà venu.

Les différents Kaddish

A part le Kaddish des rabbins (Kaddish dérabanan), trois autres  furent élaborés par la Synagogue :

– Le demi-Kaddish (hatsi Kaddish) qui constitue en fait la première partie de tous les Kaddish, qui commence par : “ Que son grand Nom soit glorifié et sanctifié”. Cette louange sera entrecoupée par cinq “Amen”, prononcés par le public, le troisième se prolongeant par : “Que son grand Nom soit béni à jamais, d’éternité en éternité”,  formule qui est une réminiscence d’une pratique du Temple.

– Le Kaddish d’acceptation de la prière (Kaddish titkabal), prononcé après la Amida et à la fin de l’office et qui est une demande adressée à Dieu pour exaucer toutes les prières d’Israël.

– Enfin le Kaddish des orphelins (Kaddish yatom), traduit à tort par Kaddish des morts. En entendant la traduction l’on comprendra pourquoi cette appellation est fausse, puisque les défunts n’y sont jamais évoqués. C’est le lieu de rappeler que la tradition hébraïque ne connaissait aucun culte des morts (pas même dédié à Moïse), et que la prière pour « l’élévation de l’âme » est tardive (après l’exil de Babylonie)

En fait, le but de ce Kaddish, comme les autres rites de circonstance d’ailleurs, est d’aider les enfants à faire le deuil de l’être aimé et à réintégrer le chemin de la vie en acceptant le décret du ciel, comme dit le Talmud : “l’homme est tenu de bénir Dieu aussi bien pour le bonheur que pour le malheur”. La récitation du Kaddish est donc ici l’équivalent au tsidouk hadin ou acceptation de la justice divine. Si malgré tout ce Kaddish fut associé aux morts, c’est en raison des terribles massacres des Croisés au XIIIè siècle.

Pour être exhaustif, précisons qu’il existe un autre Kaddish des orphelins qui est récité après l’enterrement et qui exprime le vœu de voir la reconstruction du Temple et la résurrection des morts, Kaddish récité également durant le jeûne du 9 av, mais du fait de sa rareté et de sa difficile prononciation, seuls les plus orthodoxes le récitent.

Concluons cette courte présentation en évoquant la merveilleuse liturgie qui s’est construite autour de ce texte ; chaque communauté possède son air du Chabbat, des fêtes ou des Jours redoutables. Si la sainteté renvoie à la séparation et par conséquent à la théologie de l’altérité, le Kaddish est devenu la mélodie d’une rencontre où le chant de l’homme égrène sur le fil du temps les perles d’un amour intarissable.


LE KADDISH EN PHONETIQUE

     
Kaddish – Rite Achkenaz.    

Yisgadal veyiskadach chemé rabo, beolmo di vero khiroussé, veyamlikh malkhoussé be’hayékhon ouveyomékhon ouve’hayé dekhol bess yisroël, baagolo ouvizman koriv, veïmrou omen.

Yehé chemé rabo mevorakh leolom ouleolmé olmayo, yisborakh veyichtaba’h veyispoar veyisromam veyisnassé veyishadar veyissalé veyishalal chemé dekoudcho, berikh hou leélo min kol birkhosso vechirosso, touchbe’hosso vené’hémosso, daamiron beolmo, veïmrou omen.

Al yisroël veal rabonon veal talmidéhon, veal kol talmidé salmidéhon veal kol mon deoskin beoraysso di veasro hodèn vedi vekhol assar vaassar, yehé lehon oulekhôn chelomo rabo, ‘hino ve’hisdo vera’hamin ve’hayin arikhin oumezono revi’ho oufourkono min kodom avouhon di vichemayo (vearo), veïmrou omen.

Yehé chelomo rabo min chemayo ve’hayim olénou veal kol yisroël, veïmrou omen.

Ossé cholom bimromov hou yaassé cholom olénou veal kol yisroël veïmrou omen.

Kaddish Rite Sefarad

Yitgadal veyitkadach chemé raba, bealma di vera khirouté, veyamlikh malkhouté veyatsma’h pourkané vikarèv mechi’hé, be’hayékhon ouvéyomékhon ouve’hayé dekhol bet yisraël, ba
agala ouvizman kariv veïmrou amen.

Yehé chemé raba mevarakh lealam oulealmé almaya, yitbarakh veyichtaba’h veyitpaar veyitromam veyitnassé veyithadar veyitalé veyithalal chemé dekoudcha, berikh hou leéla min kol birkhata vechirata, tichbérata vené’hémata, daamiran bealma. veïmrou amen

Al yisraël veal rabanan veal talmidéhon veal kol talmidé talmidéhon deyatvin veaskin beoraïta kadichta di veatra haden vedi vekhol atar veatar yehé lana oulehon oulekhon chelama ‘hina ve’hisda ve’hayé arikhé oumézoné revi’hé vera’hamé min kodam élaha maré chemaya veara, veïmrou amen.

Yehé chelama raba min chemaya ‘hayim vessava vichoua vené’hama vechézava ourfoua oug’oula ousseli’ha vekhapara veréva’h vahatsala, lanou oulekhol amo yisraël, veïmrou amen.

Ossé chalom bimromav hou bera’hamav yaassé chalom alénou veal kol amo yisraël veïmrou amen.


LE KADDISH EN FRANCAIS

Texte traduit (Wikipedia) .

Magnifié et sanctifié soit le Grand Nom. dans le monde qu’Il a créé selon Sa volonté et puisse-t-Il établir Son royaume puisse Sa salvation fleurir et qu’Il rapproche son oint. de votre vivant et de vos jours et [des jours] de toute la Maison d’Israël promptement et dans un temps proche; et dites Amen.

Puisse Son grand Nom être béni à jamais et dans tous les temps des mondes. Béni et loué et glorifié et exalté, et élevé et vénéré et élevé et loué soit le Nom du Saint (Transcendant), béni soit-Il. au dessus (et au-dessus) de toutes les bénédictions et cantiques, et louanges et consolations qui sont dites dans le monde; et dites Amen.
Que soient reçues (acceptées) les prières et supplications de toute la Maison d’Israël devant leur Père qui Est au ciel, et dites Amen
Pour Israël et ses rabbanim et leurs étudiants (disciples) et tous les étudiants de leurs étudiants et tous ceux qui s’affairent dans la Torah ici et en tout autre lieu que soit [instaurée] sur eux et vous une paix abondante, la faveur et la grâce et la miséricorde et une vie longue une large subsistance et le salut de la part de leur Père aux cieux [et sur terre]; et dites Amen.
Qu’il y ait une grande paix venant du Ciel, [ainsi qu’]une [bonne] vie et la satiété, et la salvation, et le réconfort, et la sauvegarde et la guérison, et la rédemption et le pardon et l’expiation et le soulagement et la délivrance pour nous et pour tout Son peuple f Israël, et dites Amen.
Celui qui établit la paix dans Ses hauteurs, l’établisse [dans Sa miséricorde] parmi nous et sur tout [son peuple] Israël, et dites Amen

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